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Wonderfully spice and tasty! (ETS image)

Wonderfully spice and tasty! (ETS image)

Step aside, fish and chips, there is a favorite food style in town in the UK — Indian curry. It’s actually not new nor new to the UK (the first Indian restaurant opened there in circa 1773), and it’s certainly not new to tea time, especially that evening meal often called “High Tea.” So, it’s no surprise that tea and a curry “take-away” (what we in the US call “take out”) are a natural pairing — at least they are at our house.

By 1990 Indian restaurants were a common sight in London and other parts of the country. Having already acquired a taste for spicy cuisine, I was very happy to see this during my stay there and never failed to grab some on my way home. Dinner would be tea and the curry take-away. Fortunately, even then I indulged with care so as not to overdo or the pounds would have piled on!

As it turns out, a lot of these so-called Indian dishes have never even been heard of in India by the general population. Vindaloo, my favorite (usually made with lamb) is from Goa but is based on Portuguese cuisine. Jal Frezi and Madras Curry are a couple more dishes made up to meet British taste. Sort of like chop suey in the US. Other dishes considered to be “Indian British” are Balti (a spicy hot stir-fry), Phall Curry (made with Habaneras which are extremely hot peppers that aren’t even grown in India), Tindaloo (Vindaloo with Habaneras added), and Chicken Tikka Masala. I am familiar with the last one. It is basically a “wetter” version of Tandoori Chicken. And now there’s a new dish called Jalfrezi that is overtaking Tikka Masala in popularity.

Regardless of their origin and authenticity, they are very popular and palate-pleasing!

The tea I like best with these is a good, strong Assam, preferably the CTC style and with a pinch of masala, a big splash of milk, and a packet of sweetener. The strong tea is needed to reach your tastebuds in spite of all those spices. The fat in the milk helps neutralize the capsaicins in the peppers used to make the dish spicy. (You could also have some sour cream or even a regular, not non-fat, yogurt afterwards, or try a drink made with yogurt called a “lassie.”) The sweetener actually heightens your perception of the tea’s natural maltiness and counters the bitter and astringent edge.

Of course, you don’t have to go for curry take-away to have authentic curry flavor. There are jarred curry sauces and pastes from Patak and Bombay Authentics among others, where you just add the meat and/or vegetables of your choice for an at-home spicy experience. No ordering. No driving to pick it up. Just delicious and freshly made curry! Don’t forget to steep up a big pot of tea while the curry is simmering.

Enjoy!

See more of A.C. Cargill’s articles here.

© Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog, 2009-2014. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this article’s author and/or the blog’s owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

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Hubby and I have been so busy with the fix-up on our new (old) home that we haven’t had a lot of chance to attend many of the events around the area. A festival downtown featuring crafts and food, a 4th of July fireworks show, and now a presentation by one of the local university professors on Bollywood! Actually, that’s a pretty good line-up. Especially that last one. And, of course, it all went better with tea!

The Tea Princess Carafe saved the day:

This tea carafe is good for many occasions, from Jury Duty to watching long Bollywood movies! (Photo by A.C. Cargill, all rights reserved)

This tea carafe is good for many occasions, from Jury Duty to watching long Bollywood movies! (Photo by A.C. Cargill, all rights reserved)

At the presentation about the phenomenon known as Bollywood, we learned that this uniquely Indian style of movie is named after Hollywood and the city of Bombay (now called Mumbai) where the style originated and where many are still produced. According to Dr. Cowlishaw, who gave the presentation, each movie has to meet certain criteria to qualify as genuine Bollywood:

  • Long (averaging 3 hours) — Usually the entire family goes to the movie together and want to be sure to get their money’s worth, so a long movie feels more like a bargain.
  • Truly family friendly — When they say “family friendly,” they mean a pretty clean vocabulary and things of interest to all ages.
  • No kissing on lips — It’s considered too intimate and even pornographic, so you can also guess there’s no other touching of a sexual nature, all part of that “family friendly” code.
  • Lots of long dance numbers — We in the US and elsewhere have shrinking attention spans, as the popularity of Twitter with its 140-character limit can attest, so imagine sitting through a dance number that goes on and on.
  • Arranged marriage — There is at least one arranged marriage conflict where one or both parties fall in love with someone else before marrying the person to whom they have been promised.

Oh, and another little secret: the people in the movies who are supposed to be singing are just lip syncing (sort of like Milli Vanilli and others). Now, it is normal for actors to lip sync in movies, but most often to their own voices. In these Bollywood movies, they all lip sync to someone else singing. And those singers are hugely popular in India.

[Note: Just as not everyone in India dresses the same and eats and drinks the same things (in fact, they are a country of amazing variety), not all of their movies are Bollywood style.]

Bollywood superstar Shahrukh Khan recently appeared at the Tata Tea ‘Jaago Re Campaign’ press conference. Tata Tea is a large Indian company that even owns a brand or two here in the U.S. Just like other hugely successful movie stars, Bollywood stars deal with paparazzi and get hounded to do personal appearances.

Shahrukh Khan on left at tea press conference (click on photo to go to source site)

Shahrukh Khan on left at tea press conference (click on photo to go to source site)

Bollywood inspires tea vendors, too. Here are a couple of offerings, both meant to imitate the color and activity of a big Bollywood movie dance number:

  • Bollywood Chai (a mix of Black tea, fennel candy, ginger, cinnamon, cardamom, pink peppercorns, natural ginger, vanilla, and cinnamon flavoring).
  • Bollywood Star Tea; an exotic, sweet combination of candied fruit, flower petals and fine black teas in a colorful swirl of flavor. Ever seen a dance sequence from a Bollywood film? Then you’ll know what we’re talking about.

Not sure how the folks in India would like these, but you never know, they could be big hits!

See more of A.C. Cargill’s articles here.

© Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog, 2009-2014. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this article’s author and/or the blog’s owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Some of us tend to think of Silver Needle as the sole purveyance of the Fujian Province in China (see an earlier article comparing versions). But is that just tea snobbery or tea ignorance or maybe even a bad tea experience? In my case it could be all three. Sigh! Fortunately, I am always eager to keep an open mind, learn new things, and give something a second try. In the case of a Silver Needle tea from India, it seemed essential. There was still stuck in my mind the question: Can you get a premium Silver Needle tea from India? Time to find out.

First, a look at what is usually meant by Silver Needle. The term “silver needle” seems to get used to mean something very specific, but is it really? Silver Needle is usually described this way:

This variety of white tea is produced in the Fuding and Zhenghe areas of Fujian province. Many tea drinkers consider this the top grade white tea.

To me, this indicates that similar white teas produced outside of the Fujian Province cannot truly be called “Silver Needle.” Also, it is one of the ten classic teas of China, so how could it possibly come from any other country? A photo posted online recently by a tea grower in northern India seemed to say that this was definitely possible. If the tea is really like it’s photo (and, knowing the grower, I see no reason it shouldn’t be), then there is definitely at least one grower producing a true Silver Needle in India. That, of course, means there are certainly others, and an online search bears that out. One vendor boasts a version from the Nilgiri state of India that, if it lives up to the web site photos, rivals those from Fujian. Another shows a version from the Manjushree Plantations Ltd. A host of other examples are readily found.

Here is the one from northern India, before steeping:

(Photo by A.C. Cargill, all rights reserved)

(Photo by A.C. Cargill, all rights reserved)

And after steeping:

(Photo by A.C. Cargill, all rights reserved)

(Photo by A.C. Cargill, all rights reserved)

Why fuss? Because there is a habit of late to slap a popular name on a tea so a higher price can be charged. Fake pu-erhs abound, becoming more rampant as knowledge of and demand for this type of tea increases. The name “Long Jing” or “Dragon Well” is now used for teas grown and processed nowhere near the famous well for which they are named.

To combat this, I see more and more the “regionalizing” of various tea terms. “Pu-erh” can only be used for teas where the leaves and the production are done in Yunnan Province in China. “Darjeeling” is reserved for only those teas grown and processed in the state of Darjeeling in northern India. And so on.

It seemed as if the term “Silver Needle” had been similarly hijacked as a way to charge more for an inferior version of this highly-prized tea. It also seemed as if some attempt was being made to make the term regionalized, that is, applied to a tea that had to be grown, harvested, and processed in Fujian Province in China. So far, that seems not to be the case. Nor, in my humble opinion, should it be. While I support the idea of protecting something special and not letting its reputation get downgraded by inferior versions, I am a supporter of open competition and keeping things simple wherever possible. Trying to get U.S. tea drinkers to see beyond the teabag is hard enough without making tea more complicated than it needs to be.

Further muddling things are similar terms like these:

  • “silver tip white tea” — A fine example is Adams Peak White Tea from the Nuwara Eliya region of Sri Lanka (Ceylon). A hand-rolled tea grown at 7800-8200 feet above sea level that makes a delicate, light copper color tea with a taste of pine and honey. One of the few white teas from outside of China.
  • “peony white needle” — An example is this version from the Chongqing Province of China. A delicate, lingering fragrance and a fresh, mellow, sweet taste. The leaves (two leaves and a bud combos only) come from a special varietal tea bush called Narcissus or chaicha bushes and must show a very light green almost gray white color and be covered with velvet peach fuzz down.. They are dried and withered in the sun.
  • “white tips” — A tasty version is Darjeeling White Tips a very rare tea from the Darjeeling region where each leaf is hand selected, delivering a truly exceptional blend that has a wonderfully light scent. The flavor is muscatel with hints of white wine to deliver a truly wonderful finish.

See what I mean? And all three are from outside of Fujian, China.

No need to split hairs…uh, I mean, tea bud down here. As long as the quality is there, it makes no difference where the Silver Needle (or whatever name it’s being called) was grown and processed. And from what I’ve seen, the ones from India certainly meet that high standard.

See more of A.C. Cargill’s articles here.

© Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog, 2009-2014. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this article’s author and/or the blog’s owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

For quite some time now tea and tea culture have been considered a rather genteel sort of pursuit, whether it be the tea parties favored by ladies of a certain age or the quiet meditative pursuits of Asian-style tea drinking and ceremonies. But when it came to the pioneering efforts of certain key tea pioneers, it was another story entirely. It’s not for nothing that one of these pioneers, Robert Fortune, has been likened to an “Indiana Jones of tea,” a result of some of the wild and wooly situations he sometimes found himself in.

Tea Producing States in India

Tea Producing States in India

Ditto for another pair of important tea pioneers. Like Fortune, they played a key role in seeing that tea flourished in British controlled territories in India, thus weakening the hold the Chinese had on the tea trade at the time. They were the Bruce brothers, Robert and Charles, who hailed from Scotland. It was Robert, the eldest of the pair, who was the first to make efforts toward initiating tea production in the Assam region of India, by opening relations with local chieftains and obtaining plant and seed samples for further study.

Shortly thereafter, in 1824, Robert Bruce died and his younger brother became one of the key figures in continuing his efforts to establish a tea industry in India. Though Charles also sent samples of the indigenous Assamese tea plants to Calcutta for study, they were deemed inadequate to the task and a representative was dispatched to obtain seeds from Chinese plants.

Which was not a wise decision, as it turns out, since the Chinese plants didn’t exactly thrive in Assam. However Bruce was among those who made native plants part of his backup plan and by 1838 the first chests of tea from these plants had made their way to London, where it was very well-received. By the middle of the nineteenth century tea production had fanned out through India to Darjeeling and Nilgiri, but output there would never rival that of Assam. And while China still leads the pack when it comes to worldwide tea production, India – thanks mostly to Assam – is never far behind.

For more on the Bruce brothers and the early days of tea in Assam, look here. Also worth a look, this 1840 report from Chambers’ Edinburgh Journal, of Scotland, that provides an interesting look at Charles Bruce’s involvement with Assam tea from a contemporary perspective.

© Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog, 2009-2014. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this article’s author and/or the blog’s owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Twinings Earl Grey

Twinings Earl Grey

It seems like a natural assumption that people who live in countries that grow a lot of tea drink more of it than those in other countries. But it’s not always true. The Chinese, who grow more tea than any other nation, are ranked 33rd on the list of tea consumption on a per capita basis. As for India, the world’s second largest tea growing country, they rank 53rd on the list, drinking an average of just over a pound of tea per person per year. For some perspective on the matter, consider that the world’s top tea drinkers, in the United Arab Emirates, average nearly fourteen pounds of tea a year.

Regardless of how much tea the average Indian drinks, there’s been something of a buzz in the press there recently about a proposal to make tea the country’s national drink. Government officials suggested as much in late April, though if such an initiative did actually come to pass it may not be put into place until next year.

Needless to say, those in India’s tea industry would benefit from such an initiative in a number of ways, but the news did stir up some controversy. This came from at least one business group, specifically the dairy industry, who felt that their milk should be given a fair shot at being India’s national drink.

A recent article from the BBC News may help go a long way toward explaining why India’s citizens are not among the world’s top tea drinkers. As the rather in-depth article notes, tea drinking was on the rise in the early part of the twentieth century before a backlash started, partly as a response to the British colonial “overlords” who made India a tea producer in the first place and who exported and consumed so much of it themselves. Among those who gave tea the thumbs down were Mahatma Gandhi, who declared that it was not well suited for human consumption.

Other tea-related news out of India saw a recent visit there by one Stephen H.B. Twining, a 10th-generation descendant of the tea merchant who kicked off the Twinings dynasty more than 300 years ago. As this article noted, Twinings was there in part to push his company’s tea bag products, which might be something of a tough sell in a country better known for brewing loose tea.

© Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog, 2009-2014. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this article’s author and/or the blog’s owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

One of the many McLeod Russel tea gardens

One of the many McLeod Russel tea gardens

McLeod Russel India Ltd. is a huge tea company operating primarily in India. They are the proverbial “elephant in the room” and not to be ignored. So, I’m not.

The story of McLeod Russel starts with two men — Captain J.H. Williamson and Richard Boycott Magor — originally from England but in Calcutta at the time they met. The year they formed Williamson Magor & Company was 1869. Lots of company growth followed. In 1954 (15 years shy of their 100th anniversary), the name was changed to Williamson Magor & Co Limited, adding the status of being a limited company. Around 1994, the company was renamed McLeod Russel.

Chairman of the Board Brij Mohan Khaitan rose from being an East India merchant, supplying tea estates with fertilizers and tea chests, to joining the Board of the tea company in 1963, to taking on the role of Managing Director in 1964, to heading the company, which has grown through various acquisitions and mergers and through building a reputation for good tea. While India remains a focus, McLeod Russel is spreading out to Vietnam, Dubai, Uganda, and elsewhere.

The company manages 47 tea estates in the Assam Valley of northern India, six in the Dooars region of West Bengal in India, three factories in Vietnam, and six estates in Uganda. They employ almost 100,000 workers in the tea gardens as well as factories that they are committed to keeping updated. In some areas, they are the entire economy.

One of the names McLeod Russel sells tea under is “Williamson Tea,” a brand they acquired when they took over Borelli Tea Holdings Ltd., owned by the Magor family in England. The deal included the subsidiary Williamson Tea Assam Ltd. with 17 tea estates in India. This tea has an elephant on the label. In fact, all tea that McLeod Russel sells is marketed under the registered elephant trademark. I saw one tea vendor site that claimed they were the only place in the U.S. where you could get Williamson Teas. I’m happy to say they are wrong, since these teas are available from The English Tea Store, too, such as Williamson English Breakfast Teas.

Williamson Jasmine Tea

Williamson Jasmine Tea

Some of McLeod Russel’s teas are sold through tea brokers and under estate names. Tarajulie Estate Assam is one of these, a tea that both tea sipper Lainie Petersen and I have tried and liked. This estate, established in 1884 and sitting between the Gabharu river on the west and the Dipota river on the east, has plentiful natural beauty. The estate name is a combination of the names of two lakes, “Tara” and “Julie.” They are used for irrigation but also remain a wonderful part of the landscape — a balancing act between meeting man’s needs and preserving nature.

Some other teas from Williamson to try:

  • Williamson Jasmine Tea — An aromatic blend of black tea and delicate-smelling jasmine blossoms that is a refreshing and soothing cuppa any time of day.
  • Williamson Chamomile — A delicious herbal blend with a crisp, sweet taste to sip any time of the day.
  • Williamson Darjeeling Tea — An aromatic and wonderful tasting tea grown at the foothills of the Himalayas. This is of a single estate TGFOP1 (Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe 1) with a characteristic Muscatel flavor.

One final note here: Despite the size of this company and its elephantine presence in the tea market, one source proclaims “There are about 1000 of tea brands in India, of which 90% of the brands are represented by regional players.” Plenty of room for these smaller growers in the tea market.

Now you know about the elephant in the tea room, which turns out to be much better than the bull in the china shop!

© Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog, 2009-2014. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this article’s author and/or the blog’s owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Nonsuch Estate Tea

Nonsuch Estate Tea

Years ago there were commercials touting the “uncola”! Today, there is the UNTEA. No, it’s not Rooibos, honeybush, chamomile, yerba maté, guayusa, or a host of other plant matter being called “tea.” It’s not even true tea, the kind made from the tea bush (Camellia Sinensis). So, what is this thing called “UNTEA”?

To answer that question we have to look at tea growing in India.

There are three main tea growing regions (plus areas that grow some tea): Assam, Darjeeling, and Nilgiri. Each has its own flavor characteristics, so unique that they are protected. The Darjeeling Tea Association makes sure that only teas actually grown in the Darjeeling area bear the official label. Assams, with their rich malty flavor, are from a varietal of the tea bush called Camellia Sinensis assamica and maintain a distinction from other teas. The Nilgiris are equally distinctive, having some of the fruity characteristics of the Darjeelings with a more rich flavor similar to the Assams. A common description of the taste is dark, intensely aromatic, and fragrant.

Nilgiri is mountainous, with peaks rising from 5,000 to 8,500 feet about sea level and a climate perfect for year-round tea production. Tea planting on a commercial basis started in 1859 and goes by “flushes” as do Darjeelings and other teas. About 25% of the harvest is the first flush (April-May), another 40-45% is second flush (September-November), and the balance (about 30-35%) are the best (January and August).

About 30% of Nilgiri District tea production comes from plantations which are represented by the Nilgiri Planters’ Association, part of the United Planters Association of South India (UPASI). The other 70% is from small growers, many having only a hectare each, making Nilgiri tea a true “small business” undertaking for the most part. About half of all Nilgiri tea ends up being sold in other countries, the big customer being the former USSR until about 1990, and goes into blends that fill tea bags. The best quality is Orange Pekoe (OP), with the next best being Broken Orange Pekoe (BOP). However, most Nilgiris are processed using the CTC method, like many Assams are. This makes them affordable for locals and overseas markets alike.

This all leads up to what the UNTEA is.

In 1922, Sir Robert Stanes, at the age of 72 and after being in India 55 years, had built up quite a business empire, including cotton mills, tea and coffee plantations, coffee curing, a motor works and tire re-treading. In addition, he set up and developed the Stanes High School, the city’s top educational institution at that time, with the Stanes School in Coonoor being established by his family later on. Not content with these accomplishments, Stanes founded the United Nilgiri Tea Estates. The United Nilgiri Tea Estates trades under the symbol “UNTEA.”

As Paul Harvey used to say, “And now you know the rest of the story.”

Considering that United Nilgiri Tea Estates sells in bulk to processors who mix the tea in with other teas and bag them, the chances of some of it being in your bagged tea is pretty high. You can tell your tea friends that you drink the UNTEA!

See this review of Nonsuch Estate Nigiri by Lainie Petersen and my review.

Review: The English Tea Store’s Nonsuch Estate Nilgiri Tea

A lovely cuppa Nonsuch Estate Nilgiri Tea

© Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog, 2009-2014. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this article’s author and/or the blog’s owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Online Stores, Inc., and The English Tea Store Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Keemun PandaFor most of us – or at least for most of us this side of Asia – tea and black tea are almost synonymous. Though other types of tea have become more popular in the West in recent times, if someone mentions the word tea, it’s likely to conjure up an image of that old standby, the black one. And though varieties such as green, oolong and puerh may tend to be more prized by tea connoisseurs, there are those – present company included – who believe that nothing beats a cup of truly good black tea.

Though all tea is derived from the same plant – Camellia sinensis – they are processed in different ways that provide us with a total of six types – black, green, oolong, white, yellow and puerh. One of the most processed of all types, black tea leaves go through a process called oxidization that breaks down the leaves, releasing chlorophyll and tannins and giving the finished product its unique dark color and flavor.

Black tea is produced in a number of countries around the world, but for all intents and purposes the most notable of these are China, India, Sri Lanka, and a number of African countries. Much of the tea grown in Africa is of so-so quality, at best, and goes into blended teas. Teas grown in Sri Lanka are mostly of the black type and are still marketed under the name Ceylon, which is the former name of this island nation.

In Sri Lanka’s next door neighbor – India – there are three primary tea-growing regions, all of which are devoted, for the most part, to the production of black tea. Assam is the most significant of these and probably one of the world’s largest single tea-growing regions. Assam produces large quantities of lower and medium grades of tea and a much smaller quantity of high grade single estate tea. India’s Darjeeling region is primarily known for its relatively modest output of an aromatic and flavorful variety of premium tea. Nilgiri is arguably India’s least significant growing with a modest output of black tea that spans the range of quality.

Though China is probably best known for all of its other types of tea, the black tea grown there – which the Chinese sometimes refer to red tea – is worthy of mentioning. Some of the most noteworthy Chinese teas of this type include Keemun, a small-leaved variety with a faintly smoky flavor that is often a component in various breakfast tea blends. Yunnan tea is a particularly flavorful variety of black tea which is characterized by long spindly leaves. It takes its name from the Yunnan province of China, which also gives the world much of its supply of Puerh tea. Golden Monkey, though not so well known as these other Chinese black teas, is also worthy of any black tea lover’s consideration.

Don’t miss William’s blog, Tea Guy Speaks!

by Stephanie Hanson

Part 2

The British East India Company used opium as a way to raise revenue from the Chinese people to then buy the tea that the English people clamored for. The powerful company practically destroyed the agricultural economy in parts of India, where opium began to dominate the landscape — opium that could only be sold to the East India Company. China tried to stem the tide of the drug, but the English simply bribed officials and continued to smuggle opium. This bribe money was called “tea money.”

Opium Poppy

For twenty years, the Company maintained a monopoly on opium importation, until 1834, when trading with China opened up to other importers. Throughout this period, the Chinese tried to fight the national addiction to opium, leading to opium wars. Meanwhile, the Company, having lost its monopoly on Chinese trade, needed to find a new source for tea to keep up their profits.

Enter the tea spy, Robert Fortune. The East India Company decided that they would begin cultivating tea in India, where one variety already grew wild, and where they were the governing authority. Robert Fortune was the man to discover Chinese tea secrets, a dangerous job. According to Beatrice Hohenegger, his stories “read more like Victorian Indiana Jones adventures than the botanical treatises one would expect.”

Robert Fortune

Fortune disguised himself as a Mandarin to travel through parts of China forbidden to foreigners, and collected information and seeds. Using what Fortune found, the Company built up the Indian tea industry, with workers barely surviving horrendous work conditions. More than 1/4th of the 84,000 laborers brought to work on the tea plantations died between 1863 and 1866. Likewise, disease killed many of the Europeans who dreamed of wealth on the tea plantations.

Manufacture of Opium in India

The East India Company held its awesome amount of power for nearly two hundred years. Its power did not decline until the 19th century, when it lost its trade monopolies in India and China. No longer a powerful merchant enterprise, it became the Crown’s colonial administrator in China. Their power was further reduced by the speed of the tea clippers, which sailed circles around the Company’s old ships. These tea clippers likewise would soon be eclipsed by the power of steam. In 1858, the Company was accused of being unable to control either its own army or India, and so, Queen Victoria disbanded the Company and took control of India for herself on September 1, 1858.

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© Online Stores, LLC, and The English Tea Store Blog, 2009-2017. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Online Stores, LLC., and The English Tea Store Blog with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

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